Adivasis of Orissa refers to Adivasis in the Indian state of Orissa.
About 62 distinct tribal groups of indigenous people once inhabited in Orissa. Officially known as “tribals” – but more accurately known as “Adivasis” – they constitute more than one-quarter of the state’s population. The Kondha have a population of about one million and are based in the south-west, around Koraput, and near Sambalpur. The Santals with a population over 500,000, live around Baripada and Khiching in the far north. The Saura, with a population over 300,000, live near Bolangir in the west. The Bonda, known as ‘the Naked People’, have a population of about 5000 and live in the hills near Koraput.
The Kisans are the main residents of Sundergarh, Sambalpur and Kenjhar. They speak the Kisan dialect along with Oriya, Hindi and English. They are farmers and food gatherers and they are famous for their Dance and Music. Kutra Village in Sundergarh District is a major Tribal Village and the main residents of this village are the Toppo’s.
As per the Constitution (Scheduled Tribes) Order, 1950, the following were listed as scheduled tribes in Orissa:1. Bagata [Bhakta] 2. Baiga 3. Banjara Banjari 4. Bathudi [Bathuri] 5. Bhottada, Dhotada [Bhotra, Bhatra, Bhattara, Bhotora, Bhatara] 6. Bhuiya Bhuyan 7. Bhumia 8. Bhumij [Teli Bhumij, Haladipohria Bhumij, Haladi Pokharia Bhumija, Desi Bhumij, Desia Bhumij, Tamaria Bhumij] 9. Bhunjia 10. Binjhal [Binjhwar] 11. Binjhia, Binjhoa 12. Birhor 13. Bondo Poraja [Bonda Paroja, Band Paroja] 14. Chenchu 15. Dal 16. Desua Bhumji 17. Dharua [Dhuruba, Dhurva] 18. Didayi [Didai Paroja, Didai] 19. Gadaba, [Bodo Gadaba, Gutob Gadaba, Kapu Gadaba, Ollara Gadaba, Parenga Gadaba, Sano Gadaba] 20. Gandia 21. Ghara 22. Gond, Gondo [Rajgond, Maria Gond, Dhur Gond] 23. Ho 24. Holva 25. Jatapu 26. Juang 27. Kandha Gauda 28. Kawar [Kanwar] 29. Kharia, Kharian 1[Berga Kharia, Dhelki Kharia, Dudh Kharia, Erenga Kharia, Munda Kharia, Oraon Kharia, Khadia, Pahari Kharia] 30. Kharwar 31. Khond, Kond, Kandha, Nanguli Kandha, Sitha Kandha [Kondh, Kui, Buda Kondh, Bura Kandha, Desia Kandha, Dungaria Kondh, Kutia Kandha, Kandha Gauda, Muli Kondh, Malua Kondh, Pengo Kandha, Raja Kondh, Raj Khond] 32. Kisan [Nagesar, Nagesia] 33. Kol 34. Kolah Loharas, Kol Loharas 35. Kolha 36. Koli, Malhar 37. Kondadora 38. Kora [Khaira, Khayara] 39. Korua 40. Kotia 41. Koya [Gumba Koya, Koitur Koya, Kamar Koya, Musara Koya] 42. Kulis 43. Lodha [Nodh, Nodha, Lodh] 44. Madia 45. Mahali 46. Mankidi 47. Mankirdia [Mankria, Mankidi] 48. Matya [Matia] 49. Mirdhas [Kuda, Koda] 50. Munda, Munda Lohara, Munda Mahalis [Nagabanshi Munda, Oriya Munda] 51. Mundari 52. Omanatya [Omanatyo, Amanatya] 53. Oraon [Dhangar, Uran] 54. Parenga 55. Paroja [Parja, Bodo Paroja, Barong Jhodia Paroja, Chhelia Paroja, Jhodia Paroja, Konda Paroja, Paraja, Ponga Paroja, Sodia Paroja, Sano Paroja, Solia Paroja] 56. Pentia 57. Rajuar 58. Santal 59. Saora, Savar, Saura, Sahara [Arsi Saora, Based Saora, Bhimma Saora, Chumura Saora, Jara Savar, Jadu Saora, Jati Saora, Juari Saora, Kampu Saora, Kampa Soura, Kapo Saora, Kindal Saora, Kumbi Kancher Saora, Kalapithia Saora, Kirat Saora, Lania Soara, Lamba Lanjia Saora, Laura Saora, Luar Saora, Laria Savar, Malia, Saora, Malla Saora, Uriya Saora, Raika Saora, Sudda Saora, Sarda Saora, Tankala Saora, Patro Saora, Vesu Saora] 60. Shabar, Lodha 61. Sounti 62. Tharua [Tharua Bindhani
Constitution (Scheduled Tribes) Order, 1950
(PART III.—Rules and Orders under the Constitution)
- Bagata 1[Bhakta]
- Banjara Banjari
- Bathudi 1[Bathuri]
- Bhottada, Dhotada 1[Bhotra, Bhatra, Bhattara,
- Bhuiya Bhuyan
- Bhumij 1[Teli Bhumij, Haladipohria Bhumij,
Haladi Pokharia Bhumija, Desi Bhumij, Desia
Bhumij, Tamaria Bhumij]
- Binjhal 1[, Binjhwar]
- Binjhia, Binjhoa
- Bondo Poraja 1[Bonda Paroja, Band Paroja]
- Desua Bhumji
- Dharua 1[Dhuruba, Dhurva]
- Didayi 1[Didai Paroja, Didai]
- Gadaba, 1[Bodo Gadaba, Gutob Gadaba, Kapu
Gadaba, Ollara Gadaba, Parenga Gadaba, Sano
- Gond, Gondo 1[Rajgond, Maria Gond, Dhur
- Kandha Gauda
- Kawar 1[Kanwar]
- Kharia, Kharian 1[Berga Kharia, Dhelki Kharia,
Dudh Kharia, Erenga Kharia, Munda Kharia,
Oraon Kharia, Khadia, Pahari Kharia]
- Khond, Kond, Kandha, Nanguli Kandha, Sitha
Kandha 1[Kondh, Kui, Buda Kondh, Bura
Kandha, Desia Kandha, Dungaria Kondh, Kutia
Kandha, Kandha Gauda, Muli Kondh, Malua
Kondh, Pengo Kandha, Raja Kondh, Raj Khond]
- Kisan 1[Nagesar, Nagesia]
- Kolah Loharas, Kol Loharas
- Koli, Malhar
- Kora 1[Khaira, Khayara]
- Koya 1[Gumba Koya, Koitur Koya, Kamar
Koya, Musara Koya]
- Lodha 1[Nodh, Nodha, Lodh]
- Mankirdia 1[Mankria, Mankidi]
- Matya 1[Matia]
- Mirdhas 1[Kuda, Koda]
- Munda, Munda Lohara, Munda Mahalis 1
[Nagabanshi Munda, Oriya Munda]
- Omanatya 1[Omanatyo, Amanatya]
- Oraon 1[Dhangar, Uran]
- Paroja 1[Parja, Bodo Paroja, Barong Jhodia
Paroja, Chhelia Paroja, Jhodia Paroja, Konda
Paroja, Paraja, Ponga Paroja, Sodia Paroja, Sano
Paroja, Solia Paroja]
- Saora, Savar, Saura, Sahara 1[Arsi Saora, Based
Saora, Bhimma Saora, Chumura Saora, Jara
Savar, Jadu Saora, Jati Saora, Juari Saora,
Kampu Saora, Kampa Soura, Kapo Saora,
Kindal Saora, Kumbi Kancher Saora, Kalapithia
Saora, Kirat Saora, Lania Soara, Lamba Lanjia
Saora, Laura Saora, Luar Saora, Laria Savar,
Malia, Saora, Malla Saora, Uriya Saora, Raika
Saora, Sudda Saora, Sarda Saora, Tankala Saora,
Patro Saora, Vesu Saora]
- Shabar, Lodha
- Tharua 1[Tharua Bindhani].
Khonds, or Kandhs are an aboriginal tribe of India, inhabiting the tributary states of Orissa and Srikakulam, in the Vizianagaram and Visakhapatnam districts of Andhra Pradesh. Their main divisions are into Kutia, or hill Khonds and plain-dwelling Khonds; the landowners are known as Raj Khonds. They are hunter gatherers. They go out for collective hunts eating the fruits and roots they collect. They usually cook food with oil extracted from sal and mahua seeds. They also use medicinal plants. These practices make them mainly dependent on forest resources for survival. Their religion is animistic, and their pantheon includes eighty-three gods. They have given their name to the Khondmals, a subdivision of Angul district in Orissa. The Khond language, Kui, is more closely related to Telugu than is Gondi. The 1911 Britannica classifies the Khonds as:
“a finer type than the Gonds. They are as tall as the average Hindu and not much darker, while in features they are very Aryan. They are undoubtedly a mixed Dravidian race, with much Aryan blood.”
The Khonds became notorious on the British occupation of their district about 1835 for the prevalence and cruelty of the human sacrifices they practiced. These Meriah sacrifices were intended to further the fertilization of the earth. It was incumbent on the Khonds to purchase their victims. Unless bought with a price they were not deemed acceptable. They seldom sacrificed Khonds, though in hard times Khonds were obliged to sell their children and they could then be purchased as Meriahs. Persons of any race, age or sex were acceptable if purchased. Many were bought and kept and well treated. Meriah women were encouraged to become mothers.Some of the major groups derived from the principal professions they follow or the crafts they practice, for example, the cattle-breeding group takes the significant name of Gawli, derived from a Sanskrit word for cow. The names of the shepherd castes seem to be derived from words meaning sheep. Such is at least the case with Gadaria from ‘gadar’, on old Hindi word for sheep. Many others of these major groups called castes bear merely tribal or ethic names. Such are for example: Arora, Gujjar, Lohana, Bhatia, Meena, Bhil, Dom, Oraon,Munda, Santal, Koch, Ahir, Mahar, Nayar, Maratha,Gond, Khond, etc.
There are extensive ruins of medieval monuments at Ranipur Jharial. There is an out-crop of flat rocks on which large number of temples are perched. The out-crop forms a gently rising elevation of about 200 feet at its highest point. In ancient times about 120 temples were in existence on the spot near the bank of the tank. At present hardly 50 temples could be counted and most of them are found in decaying condition. The largest temple of the group is that of someswara Siva Temple. It was constructed by a famous Saiva Acharya named Gagana Siva whose inscription is found on the itat of of the temple. The period of construction of someswara Siva temple at Ranipur Jharial was the middle of the 9th century A.D.
Temple of 64 Yoginies
The temple of 64 Yoginis of the place is of great interest not only from the stand point of antiquity but also for its religious significance. This is a temple with niches to enshrine 64 yoginis. In the middle there is a figure of three-face Shiva embracing Parvati. Period- 9th century A.D.
Important monument of Ranipur Jharial is the brick temple dedicated to Vishnu. The present height of it is nearly 60 feets. The temple stands on a platform made a stand-stone. The presiding deity of the temple is not found at present, but the images of Varaha, Narasimha and Hanuman are still to be seen on the outer walls of the Vimana.
Chandi Temple at Saintala
Saintala village is notable for the old chandi temple, which is now in ruins. The Goddess who is a form of Mahishamardini Durga has not been installed on the mound formed by the ruins of her former temple. The temple has been attributed to the 9th century.
Somesware Temple at Patnagarh
Someswar ascribed to king Someswar-II of the 12th century A.D.
Pataneswari Temple at Patnagarh
Pataneswari ascribed to Ramai Deo the first Chauhan king belonging to the 14th century A.D.
Jogeswar Siva Temple at Jogisarda
It is situated in the village Jogisarda in Loisingha Police Station, four miles from Loisingha. Jogeswar Siva is widely renowned not only in Balangir district but also in the neighboring district of Sambalpur and devotees come here in large number to practice penance by fasting days together and lying prostrate on the floor of the temple with the hope of getting boons. The temple was the work of former Zamidars of Loisingha.
A place of pilgrimage on the southern slope of the Gandhamardan hills, which stand along Balangir- Sambalpur border, Harisankar has the additional charm of being a place of uncommon natural beauty, with a high range of hills as a background forest clad surrounding, some perennial springs and successive water falls. The main temple of Harisankar dedicated to Siva. Period- 14th century A.D.
Dharpagarh (50 Kms)
A place of historic importance, Dharapagarh has a big tank called “Dashamati Sagar” covering an area of 119 acres. Believed to be the habitant of some water nymphs, the tank is guarded with the shrines of Chandi, Duarsuni, Samalei, Patneswari, Siva and Vishnu who are worshipped by non-Brahmins. A dip in the tank has religious importance too.
Gaikhai M.I.P (30 Kms)
A place of great scenic beauty, Gaikhai is surrounded by green capped hills on three sides. The water mass here dazzles with natural scenery and offers cool breeze to the visitors. An ideal place for group camping, the place also is thronged with picnickers all the year round.
Tenttulikhunti 42 km from Balangir (7km from Tusura)
A village revived its old celebrity that it was a seat of religious activities during Savapuriya Dynasty before the advent of the Somavamsi Kesharies(8th Century). An open space surrounded by paddy fields, presently houses three monolithic deities of Jagannath temple. However, the stone images of Lord Jagannath, Balabhadra and Subhadra, unique of its kind were known to humankind after an excavation made in accordance with an afflatus received by a villager. Respective colours of the deities are applied to these Idols ranging not more than 1.5ft in height. The age and time of execution can only by revealed after Carbon testing.
Mursing 25 km from Balangir (5km from Deogaon IB)
It is a rustic village of aborigines. Yet accommodates magnificent images of Jagannath Cult, made of neem tree. The village derives its name from Narasingh, the fourth incarnation of Lord Vishnu who is believed to have killed a demon named Mura who prayed the God to be remembered in association with the name of the Lord Narasingha. Though the village is yet to erect a proporti9onally big and decent temple for the deities, there is no let up in the rituals of these vaishnavite idols at par with those of Puri. The villagers exhibited an incredible moral change under the leadership of a school teacher named Bijoy Kumar Mohanty. Mr. Mohanty was in charge of the worship of former small idol of Lord Jagannath. He received an afflatus and located the holy neem tree along with the villagers who initiated to invite the rajguru of the king of Puri for consecration. an old lady named Kayavati Pradhani(75) donated land for the construction of a temple as a mark of her respect and lover for late husband. Presently the magnificent deities are placed and worshipped in a temporary shade and all the religious festivals and rituals are going on in accordance with Hindu belief. Here the deities underwent Navakalevar and traveled in three separate chariots this year during Car Festival amidst 20000 onlookers from neighjbouring villages